This paper presents a study of backward and forward patent citations in patents granted to firms and institutions in the Netherlands by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The study establishes different patterns of patent citation in recent Dutch patents belonging to different industrial classes. We run our model in the set of backward citations made in Dutch applicants' patents during 1996-2006 and in the set of forward citations to patents issued to firms and organizations in the Netherlands during 1993-2006. We compare the patterns of knowledge utilization (represented by backward patent citations) and knowledge dissemination (represented by forward patent citations) and obtain evidence of inter- or intra-firm and inter- or intra-industry knowledge spillovers. In the context of effective competition and innovation policies we advocate for paying special attention to industry specifics when designing policy programs and measures directed at stimulating R&D cooperation and knowledge spillovers. We present evidence that policies for promoting better knowledge exchange among firms should also distinguish between the measures for promoting the inward and the outward knowledge flows for companies in the Netherlands.
knowledge flows R&D spillovers backward and forward patent citations