Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Niimi, Yoko
Year of Publication: 
Series/Report no.: 
ADB Economics Working Paper Series 186
This paper reviews the recent progress toward gender equality in developing Asia by examining a number of indicators proposed under the Millennium Development Goal 3 plus approach, focusing on gender inequalities in education and health outcomes (capability) and in labor market and political participation (access to resources and opportunities). Despite the improvement observed in education and, to a lesser extent, in health, the paper finds that women's improved capabilities do not seem to have been translated into an equal participation between men and women in economic and political activities. Further, it finds that gender gaps in almost all aspects reviewed remain significant, particularly in South Asia with some exceptions. A survey of empirical literature suggests that prevalence and persistence of gender inequality are often caused and reinforced by interlinked cultural, social, and economic factors. Empirical evidence also suggests that gender inequality is greater when a country's economic opportunities are more limited or households are in greater economic hardship. In conclusion, the paper argues that along with efforts in removing cultural, social, and institutional obstacles by educating the public and introducing/enforcing antidiscrimination legislations, promoting economic development to generate economic opportunities and improving women's capabilities and access to the opportunities are the key ingredients of a policy package for greater progress toward gender equality and inclusive growth in developing Asia.
gender equality
inclusive growth
Millennium Development Goals
Asia and the Pacific
Persistent Identifier of the first edition: 
Creative Commons License:
Document Type: 
Working Paper

Files in This Item:
864.88 kB

Items in EconStor are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.