It is generally assumed that both gender and ethnicity are decisive factors in natural resource management and that changes in access to natural resources have differing effects on men and women and on indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. The issues of ethnicity and gender are, however, rarely explored together in relation to natural resource management. The present paper seeks to provide an overview of the present state of research dealing with indigenous peoples, gender and natural resource management. It examines the position of indigenous women in ‘women and environment’ literature and the aspect of gender in literature dealing with indigenous peoples natural resource management. It reviews empirical literature specifically dealing with indigenous women’s use and knowledge of natural resources, and the relationship between modernization, natural resource degradation and indigenous gender relations. The paper concludes that gender is indeed a relevant factor for understanding indigenous peoples’ natural resource management and therefore also critical to consider in relation to planned development and conservation. However, the question of gender equality and equity in relation to indigenous peoples’ natural resource management must be situated within the context of continued ethnic discrimination and indigenous peoples struggle for self determination.