International Transport Forum Discussion Paper 2012-1
The concept of integrated and seamless transport has wide political support but framing effective policies that deliver the desired outcome has proved difficult. This paper builds on and updates earlier work by the author that attempted to analyse the reasons for the relative failure of integrated transport polices with particular reference to experience in the UK. Four main factors are highlighted. The first relates to the difficulties that have been faced in defining the integration concept. It is argued that a ladder of integration can be a useful tool in framing policy. The second relates to difficulties in 'operationalizing' the concept and here it is suggested that a ladder of interventions may also be a useful tool. The third is that there has been a lack of practical evidence on the success of integrated policies but it is argued that this evidence base is now emerging. The fourth has been the barriers to behavioural change that integration requires, both for individuals and institutions. Here advances in economic, social and psychological models of behaviour are giving new insights into how these barriers may be overcome. The prospects for the delivery of more integrated and seamless transport, in both the UK and the European Union, are reviewed with reference to recent policy White Papers.