This paper develops a discrete-time formalization of the circuit of capital model presented by Marx in Volume II of Capital Marx (1993) as a tool for aggregate economic analysis of capitalist economies. The discrete-time formalization closely follows and extends the continuous-time formalization in Foley (1982, 1986a). The discrete-time model is used to address two important issues of interest to the heterodox economic tradition: profit-led versus wage-led growth, and the growth-reducing impact of non- production credit. First, it is demonstrated that both profit-led and wage-led growth regimes can be accommodated within the Marxian circuit of capital model. Second, it is demonstrated that the steady-state growth rate of a capitalist economy is negatively related to the share of consumption credit in total net credit, when the total credit is large to begin with.
circuit of capital economic growth consumption credit Marxian political economy