Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/58391
Authors: 
Clark, Gregory
Cummins, Joe
Smith, Brock
Year of Publication: 
2010
Series/Report no.: 
Working Papers, University of California, Department of Economics 10,14
Abstract: 
Occupations listed in wills reveal that as early as 1560 effectively only 60% of the English engaged in farming. Even by 1817, well into the Industrial Revolution, the equivalent primary share, once we count in food and raw material imports, was still 52%. By implication, incomes in pre-industrial England were close to those of 1800. Urbanization rates are not a good guide to pre-industrial income levels. Many rural workers were engaged in manufacturing, services and trade. The occupation shares also imply pre-industrial England was rich enough in 1560 to rank above the bottom fifth of countries in 2007.
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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