[Journal:] Journal of Business & Economic Statistics (JBES) - An Official Journal of the American Statistical Association [Volume:] 27 [Issue:] 1 [Pages:] 42-51 [ISSN:] 0735-0015
Raising children demands a considerable amount of parental time, obliging working parents either to reduce their leisure time further or to buy childcare services in the market. Parents may face additional opportunity costs upon deciding to participate in the labor market, but these are difficult to measure. Using a survey instrument in Belgium and Germany, we estimate the income compensation needed to maintain family well-being when adults work versus when they do not enter the labor market. In both countries we find that full-time working parents face extra child costs and require higher labor market participation compensation compared with childless adults.