Several of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) suggest that improving well-being is achievable through trade. The free flow of goods and services internationally, which encourages efficient production and expansion of consumption, may support SDGs concerning inclusive and sustainable economic growth and sustainable consumption and production patterns. However, trade restrictions such as nontariff barriers (NTBs) may stymie potential gains from trade, which supports the SDGs. This chapter explores the trade effects of different NTBs, especially labeling and food safety regulations in food and agriculture. The upshot of this chapter is that trade can enhance economic growth and development. Standards such as labels and food safety regulations may contribute to or hamper this growth, which affects the capacity to attain the relevant SDGs. Thus, future analysis must provide careful assessments of industries, proposed standards, multiple outcomes, and power relationships to identify the effects of standards on trade and development.