The new Duterte administration is planning to undertake a reform of the country's tax system. This paper provides a background to options available to the government moving forward, starting with basic principles of taxation, criteria for evaluation, tax instruments and mix of instruments. The background is complemented by a review of the history of past tax reforms in the Philippines, from the end of the Marcos regime to the Aquino administration. The historical and episodic assessment ends with a list of lessons learned from the past. Finally, recommendations are made for both tax policy and tax administration.