Occupational and sectoral segregation by gender is remarkably persistent across space and time and is a major contributor to gender wage gaps. We investigate the determinants of one-digit occupational and sectoral segregation in developing countries using a unique, household-survey based aggregate data base including 69 developing countries between 1980 and 2011. We first show that occupational and sectoral segregation has increased in more countries over time than it has decreased. Using fixed effect panel regressions, we find that income levels have no impact on occupational or sectoral segregation. Rising female labor force participation is associated with falling sectoral but increasing occupational segregation; rising education levels, either overall or for females relative to males, tends to increase rather than decrease segregation.
occupational segregation sectoral segregation gender developing countries