[Journal:] IZA World of Labor [ISSN:] 2054-9571 [Year:] 2016 [Issue:] 238
Early studies often found that offering economic incentives for undertaking prosocial and intrinsically motivated activities can crowd out motivation to perform these activities. More recent work highlights nuanced and important features related to whether crowding out (or substitution) is likely to occur. In many cases, incentives succeed in encouraging more prosocial behavior and are also cost-effective. However, although the substitution of external incentives for intrinsic motivation may not be a concern in many contexts, the substitution of one prosocial activity for another or shifts in activities over time or location may warrant further attention.
prosocial behavior incentives intrinsic and extrinsic motivation over-justification effects substitution effects research methodology