Speeding up the exchange does not necessarily improve liquidity. The price quotes of high-frequency market makers are more likely to meet speculative high-frequency "bandits", thus less likely to meet liquidity traders. The bid-ask spread is raised in response. The recursive dynamic model reveals that there is an additional spread-widening effect as market makers earn higher rents due to economies of scope from quote monitoring. Analysis of a NASDAQ-OMX speed upgrade provides supportive evidence.
market microstructure trading speed information asymmetry high-frequency trading