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The 3rd International Symposium "Agrarian Economy and Rural Development - realities and perspectives for Romania", Bucharest, Romania, October 11-13, 2012
The authors propose in the present material an energy analysis of the irrigated agriculture in which the inputs as well as the outputs, respectively the production are evaluated in energy units, meaning in Kcal/ha. For inputs, different methods are being applied, depending on the nature of materials, products or of the energy forms, in this manner: a) the energy consumed as mechanical work of: human, animal or windmill, hydraulic, ecc. origin can be measured as such and expressed in any energy measurement unit; b) the energy released by different forms of fuel is measured also knowing the equivalence coefficients; c) the energy contained in engines, constructions, materials that either is consumed once (tying rope), either is consumed slowly during the time (the tractors and agricultural machines' wearing out). In turn, the main agricultural products and the entire plant taken as biomass are also energy carriers stored by means of photosynthesis.The authors operate an energy and economical analysis of the romanian agriculture based on the statistical data obtained during the last years of the planned economy (1986-1989). The analysis comprises two versions: a) the design numbers in which the energy production is evaluated based on some high yield per area (ha). As a consequence, the energy efficiency indicators, respectively the balance and the energy efficiency have higher values. b) Based on the real yields obtained during the respective period of time when the energy efficiency indicators are much lower and the economical efficiency indicators are at limit or even negative.Irrigated agriculture is a big energy consumer. Compared with the non irrigated technological system, the energy consumption is higher with 28-30% at cereals, with 48-50% at oil plants or with 53-55% at sugar beet. The commercial cost of the energy unit in the irrigated technological system depends on many factors, among which the most important are: the structure of cultures, the irrigation norms and the number of applications the degree of use of the effective irrigated area from an irrigation system; the pumping height and the water transport distance from the source to the irrigated area; the attainment of the estimated productivity parameters; the energy crisis are directly affecting the irrigation water crisis as well, as a resource as well as price, that is why, at national level, a judicious management policy of the irrigation water and its associated energy is reccomended.
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