The importance of private sector participation and public-private partnerships (PPPs) in promoting infrastructure development in the Asian region has been significant. Though there are several studies which have highlighted the role of PPPs in infrastructure in East and South East Asia, few studies have dealt with the contribution of PPPs to infrastructure in the South Asian region. This paper examines the existing infrastructure facilities and infrastructure needs of the South Asian region and looks at the role played by PPPs as important tools in enhancing infrastructure development in South Asia. This study points out the constraints to private sector participation in South Asia and looks at the experience of India and a few other countries in the region with respect to PPPs. The role of multilateral banks in promoting infrastructure in South Asia is also highlighted. Further, the study analyzes alternative means of financing infrastructure, such as defense offsets, and suggests policy measures to minimize the constraints to private sector participation in sustaining infrastructure development in the South Asian region.