This paper describes long-term trends in international production, i.e. the production of goods and services that is under the governance of transnational corporations - either through foreign direct investment (FDI) or non-equity arrangements. It recounts the rapid growth in international production, the increasing importance of non-equity arrangements, and the shift towards services. The paper then examines the geography of FDI, emphasising that EU countries have emerged as a major source and destination of FDI - a process shaped considerably by EU integration. New EU members from Central and Eastern Europe received substantial FDI inflows in the transition from plan to market. Recognising FDI opportunities that emerged for these countries from regional integration, the paper takes a cautionary stance as to whether these countries can expect increased FDI inflows following EU accession.