A visual approach to measuring implicit personality systems is explored in this article. Six scales, consisting of optical stimuli (icons), were developed by conducting factor analyses using data from 3 studies with more than 70.000 participants. Internal consistencies and testretest-correlations of the six scales were satisfactory. Incremental validity of the visual scales was examined in 3 studies (N = 232). Results from regression analyses showed that the visual scales are distinct from self-report scales and can explain additional variances in behaviorally anchored rating scales and supervisor ratings. The gain in explained variance beyond selfreport measures was on average 140% in the three studies. The authors conclude that measuring personality dimensions via a visual method can make a significant contribution in explaining implicit information processing and behavior and deserves consideration in applied settings. For example, using visuals that are consistent with implicit versus explicit personality systems of the key audience may deepen our understanding of advertising effectiveness, media use and consumer behavior.
implicit personality systems interaction PSI-theory visual questionnaire (ViQ) Jungian typology