Amartya Sen has advanced a number of distinct arguments against utilitarianism and utility-based views more generally. One of these invokes various ways in which underdogs can adapt and learn to live with their situations. Sens argument is related to Jon Elsters discussion of adaptive preferences but is distinct in part because Sen cites the need for underdogs to survive. When read in combination with his discussion of Darwinism, Sens discussion of adaptation is relevant to recent work in normative economics which is influenced by evolutionary biology. It poses a problem for Richard Layards book on happiness, particularly its policy conclusions. It also poses a problem for Ken Binmores account of justice because the empathetic preferences in terms of which interpersonal comparisons are made in Binmores account are formed through social evolution.