Modern innovation activity is the product of cooperation between people, companies, and regions rather than a solitary activity performed by the traditional garage inventor. Empirical studies on cooperative innovation highlight three major types of proximities that enable tie-formation: geographical, cognitive, and social or relational proximities. Our paper aims to investigate the determinants of network formations between Brazilian regions between 2000 and 2011. We use the patent database from the National Institute of Intellectual Property (INPI) to create a network of inter-regional co-patenting in Brazil. The main results indicate that: (1) geography still plays a fundamental role in forming networks; (2) the network and its subcomponents are spatially concentrated; (3) there is an unequal geographical agglomeration pattern in the Brazilian invention system and (4) technological and relational proximity are important factors in determining new connections.
Invention network Probabilistic model Co-patenting