[Journal:] Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies [ISSN:] 1469-9451 [Volume:] 42 [Issue:] 7 [Pages:] 1–19
For almost 50 years field experiments have been used to study ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring decisions, consistently reporting high rates of discrimination against minority applicants – including immigrants –, irrespective of time, location, or minority groups tested. While Riach and Rich (2002) and Rich (2014) provide systematic reviews of existing field experiments, no study has undertaken a meta-analysis to examine the findings in the studies reported. In this article we present a meta-analysis of 730 correspondence tests in 42 separate studies conducted in OECD countries between 1990 and 2015. In addition to summarizing research findings, we focus on subgroups to ascertain the robustness of findings, emphasizing differences across countries, gender, and economic contexts. Moreover we test hypotheses with regard to taste-based and statistical discrimination. To this end, we draw on the fact that the groups considered in correspondence tests and the contexts of testing vary to some extent. We focus on first- and second generation immigrants, differences between specific minority groups, the implementation of EU directives, and the length of job application packs. There are many indications that ethnic discrimination in hiring decisions reflects taste-based discrimination, although in some cases statistical discrimination seems to occur.
ethnic discrimination hiring correspondence test meta-analysis