This paper looks at the regulatory reforms in the electricity and downstream oil industries, two important inputs to the production process that were heavily regulated by the government. While electricity has strong externalities as well as economies of scale and scope, the oil industry does not exhibit natural monopoly characteristics nor does it display economic features that would warrant government regulation. The paper also analyzes the economic theories underlying these reforms: why is regulation necessary, what are the different forms of regulation, and how can these policy reforms bring about competition? It also identifies the emerging issues and problems associated with the regulatory reforms. Given our little experience in the effective use of public regulation in a market-driven setting, research is needed to provide a deeper understanding of these issues within the context of our economic, institutional and political structure. This is necessary in order to come up with possible approaches to overcome our weaknesses and shore up weak administrative and enforcement capacities.
electricity and power economic regulation regulatory reform downstream oil