This study integrates theoretical and empirical models to facilitate understanding of human obesity and the factors contributing to rising obesity in Russia during the transition from a planned to a market economy. Recent individual level data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 1994 and 2004 show that diet/caloric intake, smoking, gender and education are important detfirminants of obesity in Russia. Empirical results strongly support our model for production of health and demand for inputs in the health production function. The analysis provides infirmation on dietary patterns and other detfirminants of obesity which is essential for firmulation and implementation of effective policies designed to improve overall nutritional wellbeing and reduce obesity and mortality of the population. Interventions, which enhance education toward healthy lifestyles and healthy diet, could play a vital role in preventing obesity in Russia.