Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/96791
Authors: 
Böckerman, Petri
Bryson, Alex
Viinikainen, Jutta
Hakulinen, Christian
Pulkki-Raback, Laura
Raitakari, Olli
Year of Publication: 
2014
Series/Report no.: 
IZA Discussion Paper 8029
Abstract: 
Using the Young Finns Study (YFS) combined with the Finnish Linked Employer-Employee Data (FLEED) we show that quantities of creatine measured in 1980 prior to labour market entry affect labour market outcomes over the period 1990-2010. Those with higher levels of creatine (proxied by urine creatinine) prior to labour market entry spend more time in the labour market in the subsequent two decades and earn more. Creatine is not associated with high educational attainment. The associations between creatine and labour market outcomes are robust to controlling for other biomarkers, educational attainment and parental background. Creatine is a naturally occurring nitrogenous organic acid which supplies energy to body cells, including muscles. Our findings are consistent with high energy levels, induced by creatine, leading to productivity-enhancing traits such as a high propensity for effort, perseverance, and high-commitment.
Subjects: 
biomarkers
creatine
creatinine
labour market
earnings
employment
JEL: 
J24
J31
I12
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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