Studies find fatherhood earnings premiums in several European countries and the United States. Yet little research investigates how intra-household dynamics shape the size of the fatherhood premium cross-nationally. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study we examine how the division of labor in two-parent households is associated with the fatherhood premium in fourteen countries. We find cross-national variation in the presence and size of the fatherhood premium. Our findings also show that the fatherhood premium frequently depends on the household division of labor: Men with caregiver partners are mostly likely to receive the fatherhood premium. We consider how cultural and institutional contexts may shape the cross-national variation in fatherhood premiums.