Families with children appear among both the 'traditional' and 'new' poor in Russia. On one hand, having one or more dependent household members has traditionally been recognised as an economic risk. On the other hand, working parents of young children are often among those 'employed poor' which constitute one of the specific characteristics of the Russian poverty. Family policy is constituted by both selective and universal means of social provision. It is aimed at (1) poverty relief and (2) managing social-economic risks resulting from a role conflict related to individual's duties as workers and caregivers. This study is aimed to explore the transformation of the structure of family policy provision from the early 1990s to early 2000s, expressed by changes in criteria for eligibility and levels of provision, as well as in effects on poverty levels among families with children. It will be focused on two elements of family policy - parental leave regulations and financial transfers.