We study a multinational enterprise's (MNE) choice of foreign direct investment (FDI) mode in a vertically related market with local input sourcing. We show that the vertical structure of the market and its features play a crucial role for the MNE.s decision: backward linkages, enhanced upstream bargaining power, use of non-linear contracts, and interim unobservability of contract terms favor cross-border acquisition relative to greenfield investment. We also show that while a cross-border acquisition reduces welfare, greenfield investment can be welfare-improving. These results suggest that policy should distinguish among FDI modes as well as among markets with more or less dependence on backward linkages.
foreign direct investment greenfield investment acquisition vertical relations two-part tariffs