Texto para Discussão, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA) 1574
The aim of this paper is to analyze the path followed by the regional inequality indicators of science, technology, and innovation (ST&I) during the last decade. The literature review i) reasserts the association between ST&I and the economic and social development; and ii) indicates a high level of ST&I inequalities in Brazil. The analysis is based upon i) descriptive statistics of regionalized indicators of ST&I; and ii) interregional and intra-regional inequality indicators of ST&I. It is shown that i) there was a slow convergence process of the scientific basis from 2000 onwards; ii) this processes can not be credited to the regional allocation of resources by the local science foundations, which basically followed the preexisting scientific basis of the Brazilian states; and iii) in the same period, regional inequalities of technological efforts by industrial firms deepened. As a result, the convergence process of the scientific infrastructure has not yet been capable of fostering a convergence process of the technological efforts in the country. Less developed regions not only count on a smaller scientific infrastructure but also on less effective transmission mechanisms from science to technology. Considering the increasing relevance of the ST&I policies at the national level, this issue can not be neglected in the formulation of regional development policies in Brazil.