Texto para Discussão, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA) 1709
This paper aims to analyze how the waves of regionalism represented changes in the way trade policy has been conducted, expanding the game of political negotiation with variable geometry and determining its influence on the political regulation of international trade. To do so, the concept and a typology of regionalism in its economic bases are presented. Moreover, the relation between the rules of the multilateral trade regime and those of regional agreements will be explored by analyzing the proliferation of the latter and the tensions, antagonisms and complementarities between regionalism and multilateralism. Finally, the waves of regionalism and some of the most relevant theoretical and analytical approaches that seek to explain them will be presented in order to shed light on the study of regionalism in trade policy strategies within the framework of a new political regulation of international trade in the 21st century.