Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/89997
Authors: 
Gielen, Anne C.
Holmes, Jessica
Myers, Caitlin Knowles
Year of Publication: 
2013
Series/Report no.: 
IZA Discussion Paper 7575
Abstract: 
Testosterone, which induces sexual differentiation of the male fetus, is believed to transfer from males to their littermates in placental mammals. Among humans, individuals with a male twin have been found to exhibit greater masculinization of sexually dimorphic attributes relative to those with a female twin. We therefore regard twinning as a plausible natural experiment to test the link between prenatal exposure to testosterone and labor market earnings. For men, the results suggest positive returns to testosterone exposure. For women, however, the results indicate that prenatal testosterone does not generate higher earnings and may even be associated with modest declines.
Subjects: 
gender wage gap
twins
testosterone
JEL: 
J16
J31
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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