We investigate the extent to which deficiency at English as measured by English as Additional Language (EAL), contribute to the immigrant-native wage gap for female employees in the UK, controlling for covariates. To deal with the endogeneity of EAL and a substantial problem of self-selection into employment we suggest a 3-step estimator (TSE). The properties of this estimator are investigated in a Monte Carlo simulation study and we show evidence that TSE delivers a consistent and asymptotically normal estimator. We find a large and statistically significant causal effect of EAL on the immigrant-native wage gap for women.
English as Additional Language (EAL) immigrant-native wage gap endogenous treatment sample selection