We develop a simple model that describes individuals’ self-assessments oftheir abilities. We assume that individuals learn about their abilities from appraisalsof others and experience. Our model predicts that if communicationis imperfect, then (i) appraisals of others tend to be too positive, and (ii) overconfidenceleading to too much activism is more likely than underconfidenceleading to too much passivity. The predictions of our model are consistentwith findings in the social psychological literature.
self-assessments learning about ability coaching overconfidence underconfidence