Long run developments such as income growth and urban sprawl lead one to expect a continuous decline of thecontribution of non-motorised transport modes to the performance of transport systems. In terms of the totalnumber of trips, non-motorised transport modes have retained high shares, however. The potential of non-motorised transport modes to contribute to the urban quality of life is increasingly being recognised. In this paperthe possibilities of substitution between non-motorised and motorised transport are discussed. In addition,attention is paid to the issue of complementarity between motorised and non-motorised transport modes.
bicycle pedestrian green transport multimodality urban transport