Concerns have been raised that the payment card (PC) format widely used in contingent valuation surveys of health treatments and risk reductions is subject to range bias. In response recent surveys have adopted an alternative random card sorting (RCS) approach - though this approach's susceptibility to range bias has not yet been formally tested. This study addressed this gap and showed, somewhat unexpectedly, that the RCS procedure was no less vulnerable to range bias than the PC method for eliciting both monetary values of health risk reductions and non-monetary estimates of death rates. Conclusions for future research initiatives are drawn.
Contingent valuation elicitation format risk reduction willingness-to-pay