This paper applies the five modified standard criteria generally used in economics for assessing system performances to gauge the contribution of Managed Care to the performance of three health care systems, viz. Germany, the Netherlands and the United States. The maximum contribution of Managed Care to the performance of the health care system is found for the United States and the Netherlands. The Health Maintenance Organization (U.S.) and the gatekeeper model (the Netherlands) score 10 and 9 out of 15 points, respectively, importantly due to a market-oriented environment. By way of contrast, the so-called 'structured treatment programs' of the German health care system score only 4 out of 15 points. Not only the more tightly regulated environment but also the lack of consideration of consumer preferences and of incentives for service providers to participate in the programs contributed to poor performance.
Steigende Gesundheitsausgaben Managed Care Performance Principal-Agent Relationship