The ultimate object of research concerning the Euro is to answer the following questions: (#1) What is the equilibrium trajectory of the nominal euro, measured as dollars/euro? (#2) To what extent has the equilibrium nominal euro been determined by relative prices (PPP), and to what extent has it been determined by real fundamentals? (#3) How important have been the transitory factors in affecting the value of the euro? (#4) Is the euro currently undervalued, and by what criteria? Our evaluation of recent research concerning the answers to these questions, is the subject of this paper.
Euro NATREX BEER equilibrium exchange rates international capital flows misalignment