This paper investigates whether European electricity market refirms have induced any changes infirm efficiency either through productive, allocative or dynamic efficiency improve- ments. In particular, this ex-post analysis looks closely at productivity e ects of changing industry structure, ownership structure and regulation with respect to barriers to entry and access to wholesale and retail markets. Based on the Europeanfirm-level data for the period 1996-2007, the results indicate sluggish productivity improvements of European electricityfirms due to refirms implemented in the last decade. In particular, productivity gains are associated with high-productivityfirms close to the technology frontier, while no signi cant impact is found for the laggards. Looking from a dynamic perspective, it seems that the clos- est are thefirms to the frontier the more they are able to improve productivity in response to liberalization e orts stimulating competition.
EU electricity market reforms firms productivity regulation TFP