We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three skill-classes we derive propositions on the wage and native welfare effects of various immigration scenarios. A calibration-based simulation reveals that the size of the inflow and immigrant income repatriation are key determinants of the welfare-ranking of different immigration scenarios.
international migration factor movements international trade non-tradable goods welfare analysis wages general equilibrium terms-of-trade