Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/63541
Authors: 
Sawada, Yasuyuki
Estudillo, Jonna P.
Year of Publication: 
2006
Series/Report no.: 
Research Paper, UNU-WIDER, United Nations University (UNU) 2006/58
Abstract: 
This paper investigates how the two types of globalization—i.e., integration of international trade and emigration—affected poverty reduction in the Philippines. Using the Family Income and Expenditure Surveys from 1985 to 2000, we found that both nontransfer and transfer incomes decreased poverty significantly but transfer income exerted greater impact. External openness reduced poverty significantly before the Asian currency crises but its impact had been reversed since. The effect of land reform in inducing transfer income from abroad was significant only in the 1990s. Yet, the ultra poor were bypassed in the land reform-credit-emigration-transfer nexus. – poverty ; globalization ; migration ; Millennium Development Goals
JEL: 
F22
I32
O53
ISBN: 
9291908282
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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