There is often speculation that the international roles of currencies may be changing. This paper presents the current status of these roles. The U.S. dollar continues to be the dominant currency across various uses. Yet, such a role may change over time. If this occurs, there could be consequences for seignorage returns, U.S. funding costs, the dollar's value, U.S. insulation from foreign shocks, and U.S. global influence. The paper concludes with a discussion of recent research on related themes and questions for future study.
dollar international currency reserves foreign exchange invoicing United States