Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/58760
Authors: 
Ruhm, Christopher
Waldfogel, Jane
Year of Publication: 
2011
Series/Report no.: 
Discussion Paper series, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit 6149
Abstract: 
This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benefits. By contrast, expansions of early education generally yield benefits at school entry, adolescence, and for adults, particularly for disadvantaged children; however the gains may be less pronounced when high quality subsidized child care was available prior to the program expansion or when subsidies increased the use of low quality care.
Subjects: 
parental leave
early childhood care and education
JEL: 
J13
J18
J48
Persistent Identifier of the first edition: 
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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