Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/58450
Authors: 
González de San Román, Ainara
de la Rica, Sara
Year of Publication: 
2012
Series/Report no.: 
Discussion Paper series, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit 6338
Abstract: 
The existence of gender gaps in test scores has been documented in the relevant literature for a wide range of countries. In particular, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducted by the OECD over the past ten years reveals that on average female students underperform (outperform) males in maths (reading) test scores in most of the countries that take part in the evaluation programme. We find that differences in culture and social norms across countries and across regions within the same country are crucial determinants in understanding gender differences in PISA 2009 test scores: girls perform relatively better in both maths and reading in societies where gender equality is enhanced, and the effect varies over the distribution of scores. In addition, we find substantial evidence for the intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes, especially from mothers to daughters, as the performance of girls - not that of boys, is better in families where the mother works outside home.
Subjects: 
PISA
test scores
achievement
gender differences
culture
role attitudes
intergenerational transmission
JEL: 
C14
C33
I21
I24
J16
Persistent Identifier of the first edition: 
Document Type: 
Working Paper

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