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dc.contributor.authorClark, Gregoryen_US
dc.contributor.authorCummins, Joeen_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Brocken_US
dc.description.abstractOccupations listed in wills reveal that as early as 1560 effectively only 60% of the English engaged in farming. Even by 1817, well into the Industrial Revolution, the equivalent primary share, once we count in food and raw material imports, was still 52%. By implication, incomes in pre-industrial England were close to those of 1800. Urbanization rates are not a good guide to pre-industrial income levels. Many rural workers were engaged in manufacturing, services and trade. The occupation shares also imply pre-industrial England was rich enough in 1560 to rank above the bottom fifth of countries in 2007.en_US
dc.publisher|aDep. of Economics, Univ. of California |cDavis, Calif.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries|aWorking Papers, University of California, Department of Economics |x10,14en_US
dc.titleThe surprising wealth of pre-industrial Englanden_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US

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