The objective of this paper is to investigate factors influencing the adoption of improved maize seed by smallholder farmers in Mozambique. The data used in this study were obtained from a national random sample of 4,908 smallholder farmers conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in 2002. Using Probit and Logit models, the main factors influencing adoption of improved maize seed were identified. The results of this analysis indicate that fifteen out of twenty five factors are significantly found to be the determining factors influencing the probability of adopting improved maize seed. To increase the likelihood of adopting improved maize seed, policy makers should put more emphasis on improving rural infrastructures and providing better education.