CESifo working paper: Empirical and Theoretical Methods 3800
This paper considers testing the hypothesis that errors in a panel data model are weakly Cross-sectionally dependent (CD), using the exponent of cross-sectional dependence introduced recently in Bailey, Kapetanios and Pesaran (2012). It is shown that the implicit null of the CD test depends on the relative expansion rates of N and T. It is argued that in the case of large N panels, the null of weak dependence is more appropriate than the null of independence which could be quite restrictive for large panels. Using Monte Carlo experiments, it is shown that the CD test has the correct size for values of the cross-sectional exponent that lie in the range [0, 1/4], for all combinations of N and T, and irrespective of whether the panel contains lagged values of the dependent variables, so long as there are no major asymmetries in the error distribution.
exponent of cross-sectional dependence diagnostic tests panel data models dynamic heterogenous panels