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dc.contributor.authorCrivelli, Pramilaen_US
dc.contributor.authorGröschl, Jasminen_US
dc.description.abstractUsing SPS measures obtained from the SPS Information Management System of the WTO and controlling for zero trade flows, we find that SPS concerns reduce the probability of trade in agricultural and food products consistently. However, the amount of trade is positively affected by SPS measures conditional on market entry. This suggests that SPS measures constitute an effective market entry barrier. Additionally, we split SPS measures into requirements related to (i) conformity assessment, and (ii) product characteristics. Both types of measures are implemented by policy makers to achieve a desired level of health safety, yet, entail diverse trade costs. We find that conformity assessment measures hamper not only the likelihood to trade but also the amount of trade, while measures related to product characteristics do not affect the market entry decision, but have a strong positive impact on the trade volume. This suggests that trade outcomes crucially depend on the measure policy makers decide to implement.en_US
dc.publisher|aWorld Trade Organization, Economic Research and Statistics Div. |cGenevaen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries|aWTO Staff Working Paper |xERSD-2012-05en_US
dc.subject.keywordInternational Tradeen_US
dc.subject.keywordSanitary and Phytosanitary Measuresen_US
dc.subject.keywordConformity Assessmenten_US
dc.subject.keywordHeckman Selection Modelen_US
dc.titleSPS measures and trade: Implementation mattersen_US
dc.typeWorking Paperen_US

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