The paper focuses on institutional change and institution building as integral parts of economic transition in China. China's success, particularly compared with other advanced transition economies, implies a puzzling observation: China did not apply theoretically-derived policy recommendations. Instead, authorities followed a gradual, pragmatic approach to reform, decentralize, and transform the economy. Notable examples of non-orthodox policy measures, which worked effectively in China, include so-called transitional institutions such as the dual-track approach to industrial restructuring, anonymous banking, the establishment of special economic zones or the priority given to create competitive structures while postponing large-scale privatization of state-owned enterprises. Hence, it is not evident what kind of market economy will emerge in China in the long run. The paper aims at (i) applying the Varieties-of-Capitalism (VoC) framework to China and assessing its suitability in a transition context; (ii) addressing the question of what kind of market economy is emerging in China; (iii) analyzing the impact which the emerging type of capitalism will have on the economy's allocative and dynamic efficiency; and (iv) elaborating policy implications which may help generate or strengthen potential institutional complementarities in the long run.