There is increasing evidence that climate change has an impact on natural disasters, such as flooding, and on agricultural production, both of which have implications for gender issues. In this paper we briefly review issues related to gender and poverty and examine the relationships between gender and various indices, including the human development index (HDI), the gender inequality index (GII), the multiple poverty index (MPI), and the masculinity score (MAS). Although the HDI, GII, and MPI are strongly related, they are not related to the MAS index. We then look at systems of land ownership and inheritance and have found that, although the constitutions in many countries guarantee gender equality, many laws violate that principle, especially laws dealing with land ownership. In other cases, customary laws have priority over the formal legal system, resulting in gender-biased legal systems. Finally, we discuss an example of job recovery after a disaster and interview three female agricultural workers in Japan. In the recovery process after a natural disaster, women are often expected to take care of family members; this can prevent them from returning to their jobs and place them at greater risk of either losing their jobs or being demoted. The results of the interviews demonstrate the recent empowerment of women in agricultural production and that these women have strong adaptive abilities.