Gächter, Simon Kessler, Esther Königstein, Manfred
Year of Publication:
Discussion paper series // Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit 5774
Efficiency under contractual incompleteness often requires voluntary cooperation in situations where self-regarding incentives for contractual compliance are present as well. Here we provide a comprehensive experimental analysis based on the gift-exchange game of how explicit and implicit incentives affect cooperation. We first show that there is substantial cooperation under non-incentive compatible contracts. Incentive-compatible contracts induce best-reply effort and crowd out any voluntary cooperation. Further experiments show that this result is robust to two important variables: experiencing Trust contracts without any incentives and implicit incentives coming from repeated interaction. Implicit incentives have a strong positive effect on effort only under non-incentive compatible contracts.
principal-agent games gift-exchange experiments incomplete contracts explicit incentives implicit incentives repeated games separability experiments