Agro-food trade between the BRIC countries has increased. Brazil and China contributed to the rapid increase of agro-food trade. The Russian Federation experienced the stagnating and the most volatile agro-food trade over time. The composition of agro-food trade for the BRIC countries varies by the BEC agro-food trade categories and over time. The prevailing in the composition of agro-food trade are BEC122 and BEC111 for Brazil and the Russian Federation, and BEC122 and BEC112 for India and China. Brazil and India have strengthened their market shares in agro-food trade between the BRIC countries, while the Russian Federation has experienced the most severe deterioration. The number and the share of trading partners that have traded every year vary between the BRIC countries and the BEC agro-food trade categories over time. Agro-food trade between the BRIC countries is positively associated with the GDP size and population size in importing countries, but negatively associated with the GDP size and population size in exporting countries as well as with distance. Mixed results are found for border effect, institutional quality and institutional similarity depending on the BEC agro-food trade categories.
agro-food trade BRIC countries adapted gravity model institutions