This paper provides evidence on the sources of the persisting mathematics test score gap between boys and girls. In particular, we investigate the role of the share of female mathematics teachers in secondary school and of pupils self-confidence and extrinsic motivation in mathematics. We find that the share of female mathematics teachers does not seem to affect differences in test scores between boys and girls. The number of books at home as well as the included psychological factors significantly reduce the gender test score gap. A remaining gap of 14% of a standard deviation in test scores is unexplained.
mathematics test score gap gender share of female teachers self-confidence