Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10419/36199
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dc.contributor.authorClark, Andrew E.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSenik, Claudiaen_US
dc.date.accessioned2009-11-17en_US
dc.date.accessioned2010-07-07T12:06:45Z-
dc.date.available2010-07-07T12:06:45Z-
dc.date.issued2009en_US
dc.identifier.piurn:nbn:de:101:1-200910122556en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10419/36199-
dc.description.abstractThis paper provides unprecedented direct evidence from large-scale survey data on both the intensity (how much?) and direction (to whom?) of income comparisons. Income comparisons are considered to be at least somewhat important by three-quarters of Europeans. They are associated with both lower levels of subjective well-being and a greater demand for income redistribution. The rich compare less and are more happy than average when they do, which latter is consistent with relative income theory. With respect to the direction of comparisons, colleagues are the most frequently-cited reference group. Those who compare to colleagues are happier than those who compare to other benchmarks; comparisons to friends are both less widespread and are associated with the lowest well-being scores. This is consistent with information effects, as colleagues' income arguably contains more information about the individual's own future prospects than do the incomes of other reference groups. Last, there is some evidence that reference groups are endogenous, with individuals tending to compare to those with whom they interact the most often.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisher|aInstitute for the Study of Labor (IZA) |cBonnen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries|aIZA Discussion Papers |x4414en_US
dc.subject.jelD31en_US
dc.subject.jelD63en_US
dc.subject.jelI3en_US
dc.subject.jelJ31en_US
dc.subject.jelZ13en_US
dc.subject.ddc330en_US
dc.subject.keywordIncome comparisonsen_US
dc.subject.keywordrelative incomeen_US
dc.subject.keywordreference groupsen_US
dc.subject.keywordhappinessen_US
dc.subject.keywordredistributionen_US
dc.subject.keywordEuropean Social Surveyen_US
dc.subject.stwEinkommensverteilungen_US
dc.subject.stwMeinungen_US
dc.subject.stwInformationsverhaltenen_US
dc.subject.stwVergleichen_US
dc.subject.stwLebenszufriedenheiten_US
dc.subject.stwEU-Staatenen_US
dc.titleWho compares to whom? The anatomy of income comparisons in Europeen_US
dc.type|aWorking Paperen_US
dc.identifier.ppn612960439en_US
dc.rightshttp://www.econstor.eu/dspace/Nutzungsbedingungen-

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